Groundwater Chemical Methods for Recharge Studies – Part 2

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. The lack of data and suitable methods to quantify regional hydrological processes often hinders sustainable water management and adaptation to climate change in semiarid regions, particularly in the Sahel, which is known for its climatic variability. Groundwater supporting rivers in the upper humid part of the catchment has a mean transit time of 9. Freshwater resources in semi-arid regions are facing a number of stress factors, such as rapid population growth with the associated economic and agricultural developments, and climate change 1. Concerns have been raised that growing pressure on freshwater resources might result in conflicts at sub-national to international levels. Sustainable water management relies on a sound understanding of fundamental hydrological catchment characteristics such as hydrologically active areas, catchment scale water transit times 2 , 3 , 4 or groundwater recharge rates 5 , 6.

Hydrologic Applications

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under common situations. If the source of chloride in groundwater is adequately accounted for, therefore,. Cl decay dating is feasible in most aquifers.

Every pure compound is a substance. Wash the cuttings in distilled water or oil for an oil mud to remove the drilling fluid. So a mud card is, at minimum, is an index card. Tim and Moby will tell you all about the energy that state changes require, and the effect that extra energy has on atoms and molecules. Acetylene Test Tracer identification used to lag samples. You will need two cups of cornstarch, one cup of water, and food coloring to create the magic mud. Sampling and sample preparation have a unique meaning and special importance when applied to the field of analytical chemistry.

One important property that matter has is. The term polymer is derived from the Greek words poly and mers meaning “many parts. Stephanie Warren explains via basic chemistry principles how the dough spreads out, at what temperature we can kill salmonella, and why that intoxicating smell wafting from your oven indicates that the cookies are ready for eating.


SummaryThe “Continental Intercalaire” from Sahara is one of the largest confined aquifers in the world. In the northern part of the basin, the depth of the aquifer ranges between and m and the main flow direction is from west to east. Chlorine analyses were performed on groundwater samples mainly collected along this flowpath. In order to evaluate the epigene production, measurements were also performed on chloride extracted by leaching from a soil profile, near the recharge zone.

This showed that the contribution of epigene production remains limited.

A range of 36Cl/Cl ratios from to × 10−15 was adopted for groundwater recharging the aquifer, including both meteoric production and.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Phillips and H. Bentley and S. Davis and D. Elmore and G.

Study of chlorine-36 dating of groundwater in the SAB-2 borehole, Horonobe, Hokkaido

Isotopes in the Water Cycle pp Cite as. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available.

() have described a method whereby groundwater ages may be estimated using The potential of chlorine to be used for age dating applications in.

Chlorine – 36 in seawater. Natural cosmogenic 36 Cl found in seawater originates from spallation of atmospheric 40Ar, capture of secondary cosmic-ray neutrons by dissolved 35Cl, and river runoff which contains 36 Cl produced in situ over the surface of the continents. Production by neutron capture in the course of nuclear weapons testing should be insignificant averaged over the oceans as a whole, but may have led to regions of elevated 36 Cl concentration.

Chlorine – 36 and the initial value problem. Chlorine – 36 is a radionuclide with a half-life of 3. Most 36 Cl in the hydrosphere originates from cosmic radiation interacting with atmospheric gases. Large amounts were also produced by testing thermonuclear devices during

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chloride from a source in the confining shale (with a 36Cl/Cl ratio of 13U). Keywords: geochemistry; groundwater dating; krypton; chlorine;.

For colleagues who wish to apply radio-krypton or radio-argon dating, please see Primer on Atom Trap Trace Analysis. Radioactive isotope tracers are natural clocks in the environment. Once gas exchange ceases between a sample and the atmosphere, the abundance of the tracers contained in the sample decreases over time due to radioactive decay. As a result, the remaining abundance can be analyzed to derive the geological age of the sample, based on which the transport and evolution of the sample can be studied.

This basic technique has wide applications in the earth and environmental sciences. Long-lived noble-gas isotopes form an ideal group of tracers for the study of environmental water samples, including groundwater, ocean water, and polar ice. Consequently, the interpretation of the ages determined by these noble-gas isotopes is relatively straightforward. There are three long-lived noble-gas isotopes in the environment: 85 Kr, 39 Ar, and 81 Kr.

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Groundwater dating is an important step in understanding how much groundwater will be available over the long term, especially important at a time when drought is diminishing above-ground fresh water resources in the U. The process involves using isotopes in groundwater to calculate just how long the water has been in the subsurface, comparable to how archeologists use carbon dating with fossils.

So knowing the age of aquifers would give you an idea of how long it took and how valuable that resource is. Using what he calls first-of-its-kind equipment in his lab, Lu is able to determine the age of such old groundwater by quantifying the concentration of krypton isotopes in a given groundwater sample. As that water seeps underground, so does a small amount of krypton

Chlorine is available in one of three forms: sodium hypochlorite, calcium With the help of some mud wasps, an inventive dating method has revealed that a 95 L) of water in about 36 s, whereas an equal volume of an average drilling mud is on chemistry and microbiology of an Upper Triassic groundwater after drilling.

Bibcode : ChPhC.. Zreda; et al. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Sheppard and M. Herod Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. Archived from the ratio on Categories : Isotopes of chlorine Environmental isotopes.

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